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Class Action Suit against PACER Overcharges Proceeds

PACER Class Action Advances By JUNE WILLIAMS Courthouse News Service (September 27, 2016).

A federal judge refused Monday to dismiss a class action accusing the U.S. government of systematically overcharging for access to court records through its system PACER, short for Public Access to Court Electronic Records.

Bryndon Fisher sued the United States for a putative class, claiming that “PACER overcharges users because of a faulty pricing formula,” U.S. Court of Federal Claims Judge Thomas Wheeler wrote in his order refusing the government’s motion to dismiss.


The PACER (Public Access to Court Electronic Records) database of judicial opinions, pleadings, motions and other papers continues to present a vexing public access issue. Brian Brodie, at the online news site Quartz (whose audience is “business people in the new global economy”), provides a good review of the issues around the current state of free access to PACER. He compares the issues around free access to PACER to the same issues around the SEC’s EDGAR system.

Below, I expand the parallels between EDGAR and PACER and provide some background on EDGAR for those who weren’t following the drama during the 1990s that surrounded making EDGAR freely available to all.


Design for ingest not public access

As Browdie points out, PACER is a database of databases of 94 district courts, 93 bankruptcy courts, and 13 circuit courts that compose the federal judiciary. The system was not designed as a single public access system, but as a number of separate systems designed for lawyers and litigants to use in filing court papers.

Similarly, The Security and Exchange Commission’s EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval) was developed (in the late 1980s) as a way of automating submissions of financial records to the SEC – much the way PACER is a way of automating submission of court records. The SEC contracted out the management of the data and the public access part to a private company, Mead Data Central.

Intended to be self-supporting with fees

Congress has ordered the Judicial Conference of the United States to fund electronic access to PACER records from fees. So, apologists argue, PACER has to charge fees.

Access to EDGAR was also, originally, fee-based. The EDGAR data was only made available through private sector companies who charged as much as $50 for single document and fees for access as high as $3,500 a month. (New York Times, May 1995, Flynn). In the 1990s, those who argued that this was the right way to do things claimed that the SEC is required to fund itself (Thomason).

Those wanting to retain fees for EDGAR insisted that the market was the only proper way of providing the data, that competition among commercial vendors would hold down the price for users (Kerber), and that making the data freely available would impede the development of a market-based solution for repackaging the data in convenient formats for easy use (Flynn).

Those in favor of PACER fees go even further. PACER fees are needed, they argue, to fund related projects. The courts use only about $20 million of the $140 million that PACER brings in each year to cover the costs of PACER. The rest of the PACER-fee income, Browdie reports, is given to the courts to cover outlays for the filing system; for video monitors, audio and other electronica that courts need to stage trials in the 21st century; and for security systems for the 197 separate databases. (See also: Report: PACER Federal Court Record Fees Exceed System Costs.)

The public doesn’t want or need the data

Another argument against making PACER freely available is that the data is too specialized for the general public. In fact, Browdie points out, about 70% of PACER’s use is by those inside the justice system. Browdie also notes that PACER’s complex fee structure, which allows some use without charge, results in three-quarters PACER’s users not having to pay for access. Recently, when PACER took years of documents offline, one of the excuses used to justify the removal was that the cases that were removed were closed and that many had not been accessed in several years (Peterson).

Much the same argument was made about EDGAR data. Before the data was made freely available to the public, the SEC had seen the public as non-professionals who were not “the right kind of people” (Malamud).

Technical Problems

Some have argued that there are technological reasons to restrict access to PACER and EDGAR. As noted above, PACER removed a large number of documents this year and in doing so gave several explanations for doing so. One was technical: a spokesman for PACER said that the replacement of legacy case management systems with a new system meant that the systems used by some of the courts were incompatible with PACER.

Similarly, when Carl Malamud first suggested that the SEC should put EDGAR on the internet, the SEC said that it was technically impossible to do so (Malamud).

Public or Private?

PACER documents and EDGAR data are explicitly official, public documents, but advocates of imposing fees on PACER documents make an argument for privacy of those involved in court cases.

They say that many court documents contain private information such as social security numbers and health records. This is a difficult argument to make since the documents are publicly available even though they contain private information. Peter Winn, a Department of Justice prosecutor, explains that limiting access to digital copies of public documents is what former Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens called “practical obscurity” – the private information is not unavailable, but it is (in practice) difficult to get.

Bad policies masked with invalid excuses

It is interesting that so many of the arguments against making PACER data freely available were also made against making EDGAR data freely available. And yet, today we do have free access to EDGAR data. Time has shown that these arguments were simply wrong. They are not valid expressions of obstacles, but excuses that mask conscious policy decisions.

  • The technical problems were and are illusory. Carl Malamud put EDGAR data online with a small grant and minimal technology. PACER has determined that it can put those older documents online after all (See PACER to restore documents it took offline). The designs of both systems for ingest rather than distribution have not kept either system from, in fact, distributing their data.

  • The problems of financing and protecting privacy are not intractable problems; both can be easily solved – they simply take the will to do so. Congress can make fees unnecessary by funding public access. The Courts can create real privacy protections by creating and enforcing rules that limit private information in public documents. These are not “problems” but decisions. Steve Schultze has identified a real problem that, if faced by the courts, would result in a change in policy. He has characterized PACER’s use of income from fees to finance non-PACER court functions as illegal (Schultze). But Congress and the courts have chosen not to make PACER free.

  • As for public demand for these “specialized” databases, both EDGAR and PACER have proven to be valuable resources that are, in fact, used by more people when they are made more available. Once the EDGAR data was made available, users flocked to use the data and insisted that the SEC open access permanently (Flynn). The Office of the U.S. Courts has reported that, even with fees in place, PACER added an average of 3,000 new accounts every week in FY2011. It is not that the public does not want the data; it is that the courts want the fees. For example, they reacted negatively when use increased when documents were made free in a pilot program (Singel). And the claim that most use is by those inside the judicial system and is available without fees simply ignores those potential users of PACER (journalists, academics, law libraries) who might use this system but do not because of high fees.

Making PACER free like EDGAR

We can learn a lot about the possible future of PACER by examining the history of EDGAR.

Library organizations were quick to recognize the value of the SEC’s EDGAR data and, in 1989, several suggested that the data should be made available through the FDLP (Federal Depository Library Program). That effort was strongly opposed by Mead Data Central, who had a contract with the SEC to manage EDGAR, and the proposal was killed. Mead claimed it would cost too much to provide online searching of EDGAR from the 1,400 FDLP libraries (Love).

In the same way that libraries tried to get access to EDGAR data, they have also tried to get access to PACER data.

A pilot program to make PACER data freely available in a few libraries closed down under somewhat mysterious circumstances. (Jacobs, 2009). The Government Printing Office has a program to get some of the data that is in PACER into FDsys, but the program does not provide free access to all PACER data (Jacobs, 2011).

It was action that freed EDGAR. In 1991, the Taxpayers Assets Project and Carl Malamud took interest in the SEC data (Love). Malamud demonstrated that the data could easily be made available for free – but he did so explicitly for a short period of time. His free copy of the data became very popular and was heavily used. He urged users to tell the SEC they wanted the agency to make the data free. Users flooded the SEC with comments and the SEC relented and made EDGAR free and open to the public (Malamud).

Interestingly, after the SEC decided to make EDGAR freely available on the web, Arthur Levitt Jr., who was chairman of the SEC at the time, said, “[A] library that charges people by the page, or by the minute, is no longer a library” (New York Times, Aug 1995). Charging by the page and the search is exactly what PACER does. Libraries eventually won the fight and, as this quote shows, even recruited the SEC as an ally of sorts in freeing EDGAR data. But libraries have not been successful in the case of PACER.

It will almost certainly take action by the public to free PACER. Libraries could take the lead in such an action. Certainly the excuses PACER and the Courts have given for retaining fees have been demonstrated to be hollow justifications for bad policy, not actual obstacles.

Libraries need to recognize the potential of the PACER data and fight for freeing it. In doing so, they will be fighting for their communities. In an age when some librarians have trouble articulating their relevance to their communities, this should be an obvious thing to do.


Flynn, Laurie. June 1994. The Executive Computer; Need Timely S.E.C. Corporate Filings? Look on Internet. New York Times. (June 19, 1994)

Jacobs. James A. 2009. Still no official word on PACER project. FreeGovInfo (Feb. 12, 2009).

Jacobs, James A. 2011. FDsys Court Opinions Project and PACER. FreeGovInfo (May 5, 2011).

Kerber, Ross. 1993. What Cost Public Information? SEC’s New Data System Prompts Debate on Commercial Control of Government Records. The Washington Post p.F–5. (June 21, 1993). [subscription required]

Love, James. 1993. SEC’S EDGAR ON Net, What Happened And Why Taxpayer Assets Project. TAP-INFO Internet Distribution List (October 22, 1993)

Malamud, Carl. 1999. The Importance of Being EDGAR. Mappa.Mundi Magazine.

New York Times. May 1995. Same-Day Internet Access to S.E.C. Filings. New York Times. (May 1, 1995)

New York Times. August 1995. S.E.C. to Continue Internet Access to Filings (August 28, 1995).

Office of the U.S. Courts. 2011. PACER Adds 3,000 Accounts Weekly in FY2011.

Peterson, Andrea. 2014. Why PACER removed access to case archives of five courts. Washington Post (August 26, 2014).

Schultze, Steve. 2013. My Bill to #OpenPACER in memory of #aaronsw – Open for Comment and Available on Github. Freedom to Tinker. (Feb. 1, 2013).

Singel, Ryan. 2009. Federal Courts Wary of Document-Sharing Plugin. Wired. (Aug. 25, 2009).

Thomason, Robert. 1995. Battle Brews Over Fees for SEC Report; Group Believes Public Should Have Free Access. The Washington Post (January 9, 1995). [subscription required].

See Also: additional FGI coverage of PACER.

PACER Removes Court Case Documents

On August 10, 2014, The Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, which runs PACER (Public Access to Court Electronic Records) abruptly announced that a bunch of cases would “no longer be available.” See below for a copy of the announcement and the cases covered.

PACER makes court papers available (for a fee) as well as court opinions (for free). It is not clear from the announcement, but it appears that the removal of these cases will include the removal of the opinions.

Some court opinons are available through CourtWeb (the “Online Federal Court Opinions Information System”) which “provides information on selected recent opinions of those judges of the United States Courts who elect to make information available on this site,” and from the websites of the individual courts.

As a joint “project” of the Government Printing Office and the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, FDsys has some United States Courts Opinions, but (apparently) none of the opinions in the list of withdrawn cases and none of the case files that PACER has. PACER includes: a Case Locator service (a national index for U.S. district, bankruptcy, and appellate courts), listings of all parties and participants including judges, attorneys and trustees, compilations of case related information such as cause of action, nature of suit and dollar demand, chronologies of dates of case events entered in the case record, A claims registry, A listing of new cases each day in all courts, Judgments or case status. (In the table below I have included the coverage of case opinions by FDsys.)

There have been attempts, including by Aaron Schwart, to free this information from the fee system (RECAP, Public.Resource.Org), but they have had limited success and have been met with vehement opposition (FBI Investigated Coder for Liberating Paywalled Court Records and Court Tells Users They Can’t Use RECAP).

Although PACER makes court opinions available for free, it is one of the agencies that is required (like NTIS) to recover costs. In 1988, the Judiciary sought appropriations from the U.S. Congress in order to provide electronic public access to court records but Congress did not provide the funds and instead directed the Judiciary to fund the initiative through user fees. As a result, the program relies exclusively on fee revenue (PACER FAQ). It has an elaborate free schedule for searching and obtaining court papers (Electronic Public Access Fee Schedule). The fees that PACER charges have been shown to far exceed its costs (PACER Federal Court Record Fees Exceed System Costs).

Most agencies are permitted by statute to charge fees for access to information. Even GPO is allowed to “charge reasonable fees” (44 USC sec 4102) to the public. (Although it is required to make its systems available to depository libraries without charge, we all know how well trying to charge the public for information available free at libraries worked out for GPO when it tried to charge for GPO Access back in the 1990s: Privatization of GPO, Defunding of FDsys, and the Future of the FDLP.) Still, the threat always remains that Congress will privatize or commercialize or monetize its information “assets” at any time. As long as we rely on GPO and government agencies to preserve and provide free access to government information, we are playing a risky game (When we depend on pointing instead of collecting). If we lose that game, it is our users who will pay the price (and the cost) and they will not thank us for failing to preserve government information and ensure free access to it.

The Annoucement:

On August 11, a change was made to the PACER architecture in preparation for the implementation of the next generation of the judiciary’s Case Management/Electronic Case Files (CM/ECF) system. NextGen CM/ECF replaces the older CM/ECF system and provides improvements for users, including a single sign-on for PACER and NextGen CM/ECF. As a result of these architectural changes, the locally developed legacy case management systems in the five courts listed below are now incompatible with PACER; therefore, the judiciary is no longer able to provide electronic access to the closed cases on those systems. The dockets and documents in these cases can be obtained directly from the relevant court. All open cases, as well as any new filings, will continue to be available on PACER.

court cases removed FDsys coverage
U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit Cases filed prior to January 1, 2010 2010-
U.S. Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit

Cases filed prior to CM/ECF conversion 2005-
U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit

Cases filed prior to January 1, 2010 2010-
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

Cases filed prior to March 1, 2012 [none]
U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Central District of California

Cases filed prior to May 1, 2001 2005-

Please contact the court directly to obtain copies of documents and dockets in the above cases. Contact information for each court is available on the Court Locator page.

Press coverage:

Archives.com Now Providing Access to Some U.S. Census Material and Pledges $5 Million for Future Digitization Projects

Archives.com properties include Fold3.com (formerly Footnote.com) and NewspaperArchive.com.

Archives.com is owned by Inflection.com.

From an Archives.com Blog Post:

Today Archives.com, the web’s most affordable and easy-to-use subscription-based family history site, announces the addition of the U.S. Federal Census, the single most valuable collection of U.S. historical records. The U.S. Census collections were made available by FamilySearch International, the world’s largest genealogy organization, as part of a joint effort to introduce more records to family historians worldwide. In conjunction with the Census effort, Archives will also embark on a joint project with FamilySearch to digitize tens-of-millions of additional historical records, the majority of which are not currently online. Archives has pledged a minimum of five million dollars to this important project which will positively impact the entire community.


Archives has integrated the full set of U.S. Federal Population Census indexes from 1790 to 1930 consisting of over 500 million names along with 3 million images from census years 1850, 1870, and 1900. In the near future, the full set of census images will be accessible. Leading the effort is former FamilySearch veteran Anne Roach AG®, CGSM as Director of Content Development.

Read the Complete Announcement

See Also: Archives.com U.S. Census Info Page
They currently provide access to approx. 54 million records and 10 million images.

Fyi, a one year subscription to Archive.com costs $39.95. They offer a one-week free trial.

See Also: For a Limited Time, 1940 U.S. Census Will Be Free on Ancestry.com